Tuesday, June 14, 2011

二十三條的恐懼和矛盾


在香港特區這個特權專導,政治失衡的制度下,有意角逐特首的候選人根本不須掌握民情脈搏,急市民之急。只要有心人搞好人脈關係,向北京表明心迹,便大有機會黃袍加身,搖身一變成為下任特首。因此當有人提出下屆特首需為《基本法》第二十三條立法時,我絲毫不感到奇怪。

民主派一向認為在這議題上應堅持先民主後立法。從某程度而言,這與有意角逐特首的人所提出以立法為交換特首寶座的政治交易沒有太大分別。說穿了,民主派最懼怕的,是民主運動進一步被國安法所箝制,因此對立法內容的討論更是敬而遠之。

事實是,經過○三年的慘痛回憶,加上澳門國安法的通過實在令港人談法色變,那又如何能平心靜氣去探討有何妥善解決這問題的良方?但何時立法、如何立法與立法內容的討論始終是逃不了、避不過的。概括而言,港人對二十三條立法最少有三大恐懼:

一、以言入罪的白色恐怖

細看澳門的國安法和近日內地不斷傳來以言入罪的例子如劉曉波、艾未未、趙連海、譚作人等。這些例子帶來的,是一陣風雨欲來的感覺。他朝法例通過後,我們還有言論表達和新聞自由嗎?沒有了這些自由,香港還算是香港嗎?毋庸置疑,以言入罪是香港人接受二十三條立法的最大障礙。

二、國家與政府安全之分

環顧世界各地,特別是民主國家的國安法所側重規範的,是防止串謀外國軍事勢力,威脅國家領土完整。這才應是國安法的重心,而非為着保護或防止政權的替換。事實是,國家憲法第四十一條早已清楚訂明在憲法上保障批評政府的權利。只可惜問題是在執行憲法上,這保障在內地一直形同虛設。若二十三條立法並未能清楚界定保護國家與保護政權之分,香港人又如何得以安心?

三、國家機密的定義

過去十多年,我們不時聽到在內地,國家機密的定義廣闊和飄忽得極為難以捉摸。程翔的遭遇,便是最有力的警號。假若本港法庭只能跟從一國的行政定義,而未能在兩制下行使出適當的司法權力,保障市民,特別是新聞工作者或政治人物的人身安全,國家機密便很容易化身為另一種莫須有罪名。這樣的二十三條立法,怎教港人不視之為洪水猛獸?

這三大恐懼均非條文細節之問題,而是大原則的取向,也是一國兩制能否真正落實的試金石。所關乎的,也並非是否愛國那麼簡單,而是涉及如何平衡國家安全與言論表達、新聞自由等核心價值之間的矛盾。這矛盾不應是對立的。但這矛盾在香港一天未能化解,一天也不是立法的時候。相反,在化解這矛盾之前,空談立法是一項不必要的政治冒險。事實上,民主體制和司法獨立是防止專權者以國安法嚴打異見人士的最佳保障。有了這保障,可能才是真正化解這矛盾的最好時機。曾憲梓前幾天曾說,現時社會氣氛並非立法的最佳時機,甚至推至二○一七普選特首後才立法也未算遲。這一番話可能是我近年來對曾憲梓先生最認同的一番話。

13 comments:

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

Your analysis is excellent. Very barristerial and eloquent. Frankie Fook-lun Leung

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

Macao has legislated the equivalent of Article 23. It is possible that the Chief Executive after Donald Tsang may make another attempt to legislate under Article 23.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

I think the voices of liberal intellectuals such as the Citizens Party is diminishing fast. To the minds of the folks in the street, they seem to regard the rule of law is an hindrance to and not an aid to their earning a living in Hong Kong. Look at the complete debacle of the Citizens Party in the latest District Council election. The liberal intellectuals of barristers and academics have not built a solid grass root base among the electorates. In America we have a saying in politics: All politics is local. Even Chairman Mao said: Don't isolate yourself from the crowd.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

The Civic Party complain that the other party which has the support of the local communist have more resources and fund to organize grass-root events and hence the capacity to have won the last District Council election. There is no level playing field. They should have known it even before the election. The question is what would you do under such an unfair political electoral system.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

what's worrying is that when the freedom of speech, such as academic freedom is compromised and not considered essential to maintain H K's prosperity coupled with the recent scandal involving Donald Tsang's acceptance of favors from tycoons, these incidents pose a very negative image of H K to the international community. Foreign investors are not blind to them.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

I apprehend that under C Y Leung the liaison office of the PRC will assert more influence over H K. CY Leung is kowtowing more to the Beijing administration as his real nature. Don't expect him to lend a helping hand to make democracy happen in H K.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

In case of legislating for Article 23, Legislative Council should summon Ching Cheong to testify to his being accused of leaking national secrets to Taiwan. Mr. Ching has just written a book in Chinese on his imprisonment experiences. Every Legco member should read it. I donated a copy of the Legco library.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

You seem fed up with the Civic party and wants to quit. I surmise that you are tired of electoral politics. If that is true, I fear that you may lose your seat in the Legco at the September election. May be that's what you want.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

According to Audrey Eu SC, it is not necessary to enact any legislation under Article 23 to convict any alleged offender. Current statutory law in H K is sufficient.

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

Now you have to deal with CY Leung's election supporter, Lew Mon-hung who suggested that H K High Judges should only be appointed from those who really understand One Country. Soon only Communist Party members need to apply. Who understands One Country better than a communist party member?

Frankie Fook-lun Leung said...

The disgust with patriotic education is as strong as the resentment towards Article 23 enactment. Good. Ronny. This is your chance to defeat the pro-government parties.

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